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GLOSSARY OF TERMS

hydraulic seals & packings
Abrasion Resistance

The ability of a compound to resist mechanical wear


Brittleness

Tendency to crack when deformed


Compression Set

The amount by which a rubber specimen fails to return to original shape after release of a compressive load


Durometer

A generic term referring to the instrument and the scale used to measure the relative hardness of various elastomers (Shore A and Shore D scales)
The higher the durometer rating the higher the resistance to an indentor point penetrating into the surface of the rubber material


Dynamic Seal

A sealing device used between mating surfaces that have relative motion


Elastomer

A synthetic or natural material having the capacity for large deformation and rapid, complete recovery from the deforming force


Elongation

The percent increase in the original length of a specimen when it breaks


Extrusion

Distortion or flow, under pressure, of a portion of the seal into clearance between mating metal parts


Filler

Chemically inert, finely divided material added to the elastomer to aid in processing & improve the physical properties, i.e. temperature or abrasion resistance, strength or to give it varying degrees of hardness


Flash

Excessive rubber left around the part after molding due to space between mating mold surfaces; typically removed by trimming


Friction

Resistance to motion due to the contact of surfaces


Gland

A groove or open area machined into the head or piston that houses the sealing device


Hardness

Resistance to a distorting force
Measured by the relative resistance of the material to an indentor point of any one of a number of standard hardness testing instruments


Hardness SHORE A

The rubber durometer hardness as measured on a Shore "A" gauge. Higher numbers indicate harder material. 35 Shore "A" durometer reading is considered soft. 90 is considered hard


Memory

Tendency of a material to return to original shape after deformation


Modulus

Tensile stress at a specified elongation (Usually 100% elongation for elastomers)


Nominal Dimension

Nearest fractional equivalent to actual dimensions


Oxidation

The reaction of oxygen on a compound usually detected by a change in the physical properties, appearance or feel of the surface


Permanent Set

The deformation remaining after a specimen has been stressed in tension for a definite period and released for a definite period


Permeability

The rate at which a liquid or gas under pressure passes through a solid material by diffusion and solution
In rubber terminology, it is the rate of gas flow expressed in atmospheric cubic centimeters per second through an elastomer material one centimeter square and one centimeter thick (atm cc/cm²/cm/cm/sec).


Resilient

Capable of returning to original size and shape after deformation


Static Seal

A sealing device used between mating surfaces that have no relative motion


Squeeze

Diametrical compression of O-Ring between surface of the groove bottom and surface of other mating metal part in the gland assembly


Swell

Increased volume of a specimen caused by immersion in a fluid (usually a liquid)


Tear Resistance

Resistance to growth of a cut or nick when tension is applied to the specimen. Commonly expressed as pounds per inch thickness


Tensile Strength

Force in pounds per square inch required to cause a rupture of a specimen of a rubber material


Thermal Expansion

Expansion caused by increase in temperature. May be linear or volumetric


Viscosity

The property of fluids and plastic solids by which they resist an instantaneous change of shape, i.e., resistance to flow